Research - Technology to support writing

Prepared by: Sheri Lenzo, Teacher Leader for Assistive Technology, Oak Park District 97, US


ACT. (2005). Crisis at the core: Preparing all students for college and work [Electronic Version].

Berninger, V. W. (1999). Coordinating transcription and text generation in working memory during composing: Automatic and constructive processes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(2), 99-112.

Berninger, V. W., & Amtmann, D. (2003). Preventing written expression disabilities through early and continuing assessment and intervention for handwriting and/or spelling problems: Research into practice. In H. L. Swanson, S. Graham & K. R. Harris (Eds.), Handbook of Learning Disabilities (pp. 345-363). New York: Guilford Press.

Bolt, S.E., & Thurlow, M.L. (2004). Five of the most frequently allowed testing accommodations in state policy: Synthesis of research. Remedial and Special Education. 25(3). 141-152.

Connelly, V., Gee, D., Walsh, E. (2007). A comparison of keyboarded and handwritten compositions and the relationship with transcription speed. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 479-492.

DeCoste, D. (2005). Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity
Profile. Don Johnston Inc., Volo, IL

De La Paz, S. (1999). Composing via dictation and speech recognition systems: Compensatory
technology for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(3),

Englert, Carol S., Raphael, Taffy E., Anderson, Linda M., Anthony, Helene M. and Stevens,
Dannelle D
. Making Strategies and Self-Talk Visible: Writing Instruction in Regular and
Special Education Classrooms 1991

Englert, C. S., Wu, X., & Zhao, Y. (2005). Cognitive tools for writing: Scaffolding the
performance of students through technology. Learning Disabilities Research and
Practice, 20(3), 184-198.

Englert, C. S., & Raphael, T. E. (1989). Developing successful writers through cognitive strategy instruction. In J. E. Brophy (Ed.), Advances in research in teaching (Vol. 1, pp.105-151). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Espin, C., Shin, J. Deno, S. L., Skare, S., Robinson, S.,  Benner, B. (2000). Identifying indicators of written expression proficiency for middle school students. The Journal of Special Education, 34 (3), 140-153.

Faris-Cole, D., & Lewis, R. (2001). Exploring speech recognition technology: Children with learning and emotional/behavioral disorders. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11(1), 3-12.

Garfinkel, R., Fernandez, E., & Gopal, R. (2003). Design of an interactive spell checker: Optimizing the list of offered words. Decision Support Systems, 35(3), 385-397.

Gerlach, G. J., Johnson, J. R., & Ouyang, R. (1991). Using an electronic spell checker to correct
misspelled words and verify correctly spelled words. Reading Improvement, 28, 188-194.

Graham, S. (1990). The role of production factors in learning disabled students' compositions.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 781-791.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Improving the writing performance of young struggling writers: theoretical and programmatic research from the center on accelerating student learning. The Journal of Special Education, 39 (1), 19-33.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2000). The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing
and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 3-12.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2003). Students with learning disabilities and the process of
writing: A meta-analysis of SRSD studies. In H. L. Swanson, S. Graham & K. R. Harris
(Eds.), Handbook of Learning Disabilities (pp. 323-344). New York: Guilford Press.

Hetzroni, O. E., & Shrieber, B. (2004). Word processing as an assistive technology tool for
enhancing academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general
classroom. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(2), 143-154.

Karat, C.M., Halverson, C., Horn, D. and Karat, J. (1999), Patterns of entry and correction in
large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems, CHI 99 Conference Proceedings, 568–575

Langone, J., Levine, B., Clees, T. J., Malone, M., & Koorland, M. A. (1996). The differential effects of a typing tutor and microcomputer-based word processing on the writing samples of elementary students with behavior disorders. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 29(2), 141-158.

MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., & Schwartz, S. S. (1993). Integrating strategy instruction and word processing into a process approach to writing instruction. School Psychology Review, 22(4), 671-681.

MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., Schwartz, S. S., & Schafer, W. (1995). Evaluation of a writing instruction model that integrated a process approach, strategy instruction, and word processing. Learning Disability Quarterly, 18(4), 278-291.

National Writing Project, & Nagin, C. (2006). Because writing matters: Improving student writing in our schools. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

National Commission on Writing. (2003). The Neglected R: The need for a writing revolution
[Electronic Version]. Retrieved 1/26/11, from

National Council of Teachers of English. (2004). NCTE beliefs about the teaching of writing.
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Peterson-Karlan, G. R., & Parette, H. P. (2007). Supporting struggling writers using
technology: Evidence-based instruction and decision-making. Center For
Implementing Technology In Education. Retrieved January 26, 2011, from

Raphael, T. E., & Englert, C. S. (1990). Reading and writing: Partners in constructing meaning.
The Reading Teacher, 43, 388-400.

Rock, M.L. (2004). Graphic organizers: Tools to foster behavioral literacy and foster emotional competency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(1), 10-37.

Vacc, N. N. (1987). Word processor versus handwriting: A comparative study of writing samples produced by mildly mentally handicapped students. Exceptional Children, 54(2), 156-165.

Wolfe, E. W., Bolton, S., Feltovich, B., & Bangert, A. W. (1996). A study of word processing experience and its effects on student essay writing. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 14(3), 269-283.

Wolfe, E. W., Bolton, S., Feltovich, B., & Niday, D. M. (1996). The influence of student experience with word processors on the quality of essays written for a direct writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 3(2), 123-147.